There are a lot of questions both those in the technical field and amateurs alike may have regarding DNS records. What do these records do exactly? How do domain name system zones work? What are all the domain name types?
These questions along with several others will be answered and outlined to give you a simpler understanding of this complex technical subject.
What are DNS Records?
DNS records are the most important part of the Domain Name System. You can use these records to complete the mapping of IP addresses with domain or websites. Use DNS to connect the website with the internet world as well. Not only that, but DNS records are the instructor for the DNS server. This is the way it can reach the destination IP address, which is linked to the domain name.
In the DNS records, TTL performs an important role, TTL stands for “Time To Leave.” It takes time to put into effect when DNS records are updating. The request of the TCP packet will traverse one router to another router and to the destination. That timing is known as a TTL of a particular record. In other words, TTL is the time or how long it takes to bring into effect around the globe.
DNS has different types of syntaxes to manage incoming requests. These syntaxes have their own unique characteristics, which are also known as DNS records. To add, update or set up DNS records, you must know the basic information behind it. You can view your DNS records with control panels as well as programs including WHM, cPanel, Plesk, Solid CP, etc.
How to Introduce the Domain Name Concept
For the average person, finding the exact address of a particular website with an IP address number can be overwhelming. This is because every website has its own unique IP address.
So, the question is, “How can we Identify the websites on the internet?”
Introduce the Domain Name System concept by answering this issue. An example of this system like a phone book of the internet.
What is a Domain Name?
The domain name is a unique name of the website, which connects the IP address through the name, and we can catch a particular website. The domain name connects the IP address of the website on the internet because a human mind can easily remember the naming conventions, So there is no need to remember the strings of numbers. Instead, you just need to enter the simple domain name.
What is a Top-Level Domain Name?
TLD, or “Top-level Domain” is the most important part of the domain name. The TLD is an extension of a domain. This extension can be written on the right side of your domain TLD. This category uses an address to locate a website. There are different types of TLDs available for multiple locations around the globe. For example, presently in 2020, there are 162 million TLDs available.
The following are a few of the most popular TLDs:
.com, .net, .org, .us, .co.uk .in .biz, .info, .tv, .cc, .co.me, .mobi.pro, .pw, .ca
How Does the Domain Name System Zone Work?
DNS zone is the system that has the rights of administration of management of the system. In this zone, manage the many domains and sub-domain resources, and zone files. Store these DNS records in zone files. This is a platform that manages several types of DNS resource records.
When you create a new DNS zone, it will auto-update your basic or dynamic DNS records instead of having to update this manually or statically.
What are Domain Name System Resolvers?
Use DNS resolvers to connect your IP address with your DNS zone or send your requests to any DNS zone. This DNS resolver plays an important role in the understanding of your URL. You may find the destination for your request by using DNS resolvers. We can also use DNS resolvers as a DNS cache.
In the DNS manager, you can see the DNS records which are currently in use with your domain and you canflush unnecessary DNS records from here. You can also update your records from the DNS manager.
Most Commonly Used DNS Records
(1) SOA :
SOA records or “Start of Authority” are records are the primary records of the DNS zones. SOA is an important part of the DNS record for the overall DNS zone file. This includes the different types of properties related to the domain and DNS zone. Use SOA records to store the information of the domain hosters regarding the name of the servers that supply the data for the DNS zone. This record includes the administrative information of the zone. Every DNS zone file includes only one SOA record.
(2) Name Server Records :
Use Name Server records (NS) to identify the server which is authoritative for that particular zone. Anytime you need to change the zone, the NS records need to be changed as well. These records include the information of the pointed current zone. Your DNS records are hosts along with your authoritative name servers.
Set your NS records correctly and onto the proper DNS server. This includes the name of the server, not the IP address. The NS record defines the servers which are providing DNS services for that domain name. You can update your DNS records with your domain registrar’s panel. It will update the records in your DNS zone.
(3) A Record:
An “A” record is a basic record. Employ an A record to map the IP address to the domain name. A records map IP addresses version 4 with the hosted domains. The example of IPv4 is 1xx.xxx.xx.x5. Here A means Addressing. That is the primary record of any website which uses an IPv4 address. Using this record you can also point another domain with the IP address as per the same way.
(4) AAAA Record:
Use “AAAA” records in conjunction with IP addresses for the hosted domains which utilize an IPv6 type of IP address. This record is conceptually the same as an “A” record but the pin-sized difference is that AAAA records are used to map IPv6 addresses.
An example of an IPv6 may look like “2501:xxx:85a3:0:6:xxx:3r0:7354,” which is stored in AAAA records. The most important aspect regarding AAAA records is that the IPv4 series is running out. The internet is spreading across the globe day by day, so the AAAA record decides how long the record may survive within the growing internet world.
CNAME is short for “Canonical Name.” The Canonical name involves a domain’s alternative name related to the main domain. Use his CNAME record to map another named domain to the main domain. Whenever you do not need to set different IP addresses for another service of the main domain, you can set the CNAME record.
When you set the name record for a domain or subdomain, you cannot add an A record for the same. For example, “mail.example.com” is the canonical name of your main domain. You can no longer set this FQDN with an A record.
You can set a CNAME record main domain and subdomain as well,
For example: (subdomain)mail.example.com and www.example.com. For both of these domains, you do not need to use different IP addresses. It will work well with the main domain and subdomain.
Utilize TXT or Text records to store the information of your server. You can store the information of your datacenter, provided DNS zone, hostname, etc. Store TXT records in human-readable form. You can now add machine-readable information in the TXT record as well.
The main purpose of this record is authentication of mail, the ownership of the domain, SSL certificate validation, etc. For security reasons, the web agents recommend adding your TXT records in your DNS zone to prove your identity within your domain. TXT records are also based on the DKIM, SPF and DMARC records because they are set within the TXT records with the different sub-properties and its policies.
A TXT record takes 48 to 50 hours to affect the changes, This includes arbitrary non-formatted text strings, combinations of multiple words and numbers.
MX stands for Mail Exchanger records. These records work just as its name states. Use mail exchangers anytime you require to build a system for accepting mail on behalf of your main domain. You can send emails without the use of MX records, but you are not able to receive any emails on behalf of your maindomain.
To receive mail, settle the MX records properly among the proper domain. To make the correspondence through the mail, you must set up MX records. In MX records, priorities are most preferable when MX records are set up with more than one domain. Priority comes into play when the mail exchanging traffic takes the load. As per the priority, mail servers share the workload, so the mailing system cannot mark the mail as a spamming or spoofing problem.
DKIM stands for “Domain Key Identified Mail.” This type of record provides protection from spamming and spoofing activity on your domain. Manage these records to further identify email validity. Also, use DKIM to check that the mail is being received from a valid sender. This record verifies the sender’s authentication. Authentication is important because it identifies the spammers, forgery attacks, stops harmful emails, etc.
These records use the DKIM key with the TXT formatted information for verification, which is known as the DKIM signature. Once the mailer sends an email, the signature will store the information with the DKIM key when the receiver email server receives that email. It decrypts the DKIM key and information from the sender mail server. If both can be matched then the email will be authorized. The record key values are also known as the DKIM signature.
DMARC stands for “Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance.” This record is both SPF and DKIM-based because it uses the SPF and DKIM filtering in its authentication within its own filtering process.
The DMARC record checks for email authentication on the basis of the following properties:
- It will check the DKIM key verification authentication and give a failing or passing result.
- Next, it will verify the SPF records and validations of IP addresses.
- It will then apply its rules to the email for filtering.
This record applies its own policies as well as SPF and DKIM. After that, it will allow the email sending process to move forward. DMARC checks emails that have been sent on behalf of any domain. It will authenticate the sender server, then it will generate the report by comparing the details from its policy.
Create this report and use it as a feedback report in your inbox. From this report, you can easily identify spam versus valid emails. The following are three types of policies of DMARC which handles the fail request as per the settled policy:
- None: Action will not be taken. It simply collects your mail data and sends the reports.
- Quarantine: This policy will treat your mail with mistrust.
- Reject: Your mail will be blocked.
SPF or “Standard Policy Framework’s” main purpose is that no one other than yourself can send emails on behalf of your domain. These records check the IP address of the sender server with the authorized IP address of SPF records for the particular domain. These records have their own rules to authenticate the IP address of the sender server. If both IP addresses are the same, then it will allow sending those emails. When you send emails, SPF may either accept, bounce back, reject, or spam that mail. SPF will verify and redirect the emails accordingly.
The full term for SRV is “Service record,” This type of record is a service-based record. When the domain requires finding the proper address of the service, this record searches the related services as per its sub- properties. You can use the DNS objects of the SRV records. to create your SRV record manually.
PTR record or “Pointer record” point the IP address to the domain. Consider this as a reverse lookup of the A record or DNS record. Before creating your PTR record, you need to know the details regarding its DNS objects.
The PTR record points to the actual domain name from the reference of IP address. This is a similar process compared to the A record except that it works in the opposite manner. Use this record mostly to find the domain name which actually connects with the IP address. Settle this for mailing purposes or the wrong PTR can cause spamming.
(13) Domain ALIAS:
Use a domain alias to access the main domain from the use of another domain. Use both ALIAS and CNAME for the same purpose. They access your domain from another domain with the help of the ALIAS. This record maps the third party domain as well. You can also use the domain name which you have already mapped with your A or AAAA records.
CAA is short for the “Certificate Authority Authorization.” Use this record to authenticate the authority of the SSL certificates of the domain.
This record has 3 types of sub-properties:
- Flag: The flag property stands for “1.” This means it will not issue the certificate if CAA authentication does not happen (critical issuer).
- Tag: Tag defines the certificate category. (issue, issuewild, iodef)
- Value: Value includes the information of the issuer.
BIMI stands for “Brand Indicators for Message Identification.”
This is a new method of email authentication.Once the server is marked as authorized by BIMI, it will find the logo of the sender’s organization and send it to that specific mailbox.
Connect the website through the DNS records with IP addresses. Also, sometimes we need to change the DNS records and nameservers. Any time you change the DNS records and name servers of the website, it will point to the new address on the internet.
After changing the new DNS records, it will not directly affect the web. DNS Propagation Time takes anywhere from 24 to 48 hours to point one address to another on the network around the whole globe.
Domain Name System Extension
Now you can add the extension from Google Chrome which is introduced by AccuWebHosting. To check the DNS records of the website, you can use our new Chrome extension. You can find the settled DNS records for any domain or website on this platform.
Simply add the below URL to your Google Chrome:Click on this link to get the chrome extension to check DNS Record.
This extension is divided into two parts. The first part includes information regarding the website, such as IP addresses, locations, ISP. etc. Secondly, you can access DNS records section of the website. This includes information regarding the domain’s DNS records.
“Who is Hosting this Website?” is the extension and available for free on the Google Chrome extension.
(Visited 1 times, 2 visits today)